Open Source Cloud Authors: Liz McMillan, Jason Bloomberg, Yeshim Deniz, Stackify Blog, Vaibhaw Pandey

Related Topics: Microservices Expo, Microsoft Cloud, Open Source Cloud

Microservices Expo: Article

Making Sense of Large and Growing Data Volumes

MapReduce won’t overtake the enterprise data warehouse industry anytime soon

Is MapReduce the Holy Grail answer to the pressing problem of processing, analyzing and making sense of large and growing data volumes? Certainly it has potential in this arena, but there is a distressing gap between the amount of hype this technology - and its spinoffs - has received and the number of professionals who actually know how to integrate and make best use of it.

Industry watchers say it's just a matter of time before MapReduce sweeps through the enterprise data warehouse (EDW) market the same way open source technologies like Linux have done. In fact, in a recent blog post, Forrester's James Kobielus proclaimed that most EDW vendors will incorporate support for MapReduce's open source cousin Hadoop into the heart of their architectures to enable open, standards-based data analytics on massive amounts of data.

So, no more databases, just MapReduce? I'm not so sure. But don't misunderstand. It's not that MapReduce isn't an effective way to analyze data in some cases. The big names in Internet business are all using it - Facebook, Google, Amazon, eBay et al - so it must be good, right? But it's worth taking a more measured view based both on the technical and the practical business merits. I believe that the two technologies are not so mutually exclusive; that they will work hand-in-hand and, in some cases, MapReduce will be integrated into the relational database (RDBMS).

Google certainly has proven that MapReduce excels at making sense out of the exabytes of unstructured data on the web, which it should, given that MapReduce was designed from the outset for manipulating very large data sets. MapReduce in this sense provides a way to put structure around unstructured data. We humans prefer structure; it's in our DNA. Without structure, we have no real way of adding value to the data. Unstructured data analytics is something of an oxymoron for a pattern-seeking hominid.

MapReduce helps us put structure around the unstructured so we can then make sense of it. It creates an environment wherein a data analyst can write two simple functions, a "mapper" and a "reducer," to perform the actual data manipulation, returning a result that is at once both an analysis of the data it has just mapped and summarized, as well as the structure for further analysis that will help provide insight into the data. Whether that further analysis is done in a MapReduce environment might be the more appropriate question.

From an infrastructure standpoint, MapReduce excels where performance and scalability are challenges. Applications written using the MapReduce framework are automatically parallelized, making it well suited to a large infrastructure of connected machines. As it scales applications across lots of servers made up of lots of nodes, the MapReduce framework also provides built-in query fault tolerance so that whatever hardware component might fail, a query would be completed by another machine. Further, MapReduce and its open source brethren can perform functions not possible in standard SQL (click-stream sessionization, nPath, graph production of potentially unbounded length in SQL).

What's not to love? At a basic level I believe the MapReduce framework is an inefficient way of analyzing data for the vast majority of businesses. The aforementioned capabilities of MapReduce are all well and good, provided you have a Google-like business replete with legions of programmers and vast amounts of server and memory capacity. Viewed from this perspective, it makes perfect sense that Google developed and used MapReduce: because it could. It had a huge and growing resource in its farms of custom-made servers, as well as armies of programmers constantly looking for new ways to take advantage of that seemingly infinite hardware (and the data collected on it), to do cool new things.

Similarly, the other high-profile adopters and advocates are also IT-savvy, IT-heavy companies and, like Google, have the means and ongoing incentive to get a MapReduce framework tailored to their particular needs and reap the benefits. Would a mid-size firm know how? It seems doubtful. While it has claimed that MapReduce is easy to use, even for programmers without experience with distributed systems, I know from field experience with customers that it does, in fact, take some pretty experienced folks to make best use of it.

Projects like Hive, Google Sawzall, Yahoo Pig and companies like Cloudera all, in essence, attempt to make the MapReduce paradigm easier for lesser experts to use and, in fact, make it behave for the end user more like a parallel database. But this raises the question: Why? It seems to be a bit of re-inventing the wheel. IT-heavy is not how most businesses operate today, especially in these economic times. The dot-com bubble is long over. Hardware budgets are limited and few companies relish the idea of hiring teams of programming experts to maintain even a valuable IT asset such as their data warehouse. They'd rather buy an off-the-shelf tool designed from the ground up to do high-speed data analytics.

Like MapReduce, commercially available massively parallel processing databases specifically built for rapid, high volume data analytics will provide immense data scale and query fault tolerance. They also have a proven track record of customer deployments and deliver equal if not better performance on Big Data problems. Perhaps as important, today's next-generation MPP analytic databases give businesses the flexibility to draw on a deep pool of IT labor skilled in established conventions such as SQL.

As mentioned earlier, unstructured data seems like a natural for MapReduce analysis. A rising tide of chatter is focused on the increasing problem - and importance - of unstructured data. There is more than a bit of truth to this. As the Internet of everything becomes more and more a reality, data is generated everywhere; but our experience to date is that businesses are most interested in data derived from the transactional systems they've wired their businesses on top of, where structure is a given.

Another difficulty faces companies even as MapReduce becomes more integrated into the overall enterprise data analysis strategy. MapReduce is a framework. As the hype and interest have grown, MapReduce solutions are being created by database vendors in entirely non-standard and incompatible ways. This will further limit the likelihood that it will become the centerpiece of an EDW. Business has demonstrated time and again that it prefers open standards and interoperability.

Finally, I believe a move toward a programmer-centric approach to data analysis is both inefficient and contrary to all other prevailing trends of technology use in the enterprise. From the mobile workforce to the rise of social enterprise computing, the momentum is away from hierarchy. I believe this trend is the only way the problem of making Big Data actionable will be effectively addressed. In his classic book on the virtues of open source programming, The Cathedral and the Bazaar, Eric S. Raymond put forth the idea that open source was an effective way to address the complexity and density of information inherent in developing good software code. His proposition, "given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow," could easily be restated for Big Data as, "given enough analysts, all trends are apparent." The trick is - and really always has been - to get more people looking at the data. You don't achieve that end by centering your data analytics efforts on a tool largely geared to the skills of technical wizards.

MapReduce-type solutions as they currently exist are most effective when utilized by programmer-led organizations focused on maximizing their growing IT assets. For most businesses seeking the most efficient way to quickly turn their most valuable data into revenue generating insight, MPP databases will likely continue to hold sway, even as MapReduce-based solutions find a supporting role.

More Stories By Roger Gaskell

Roger Gaskell, CTO of Kognitio, has overall responsibility for all product development. He has been instrumental in all generations of the WX and WX2 database products to date, including evolving it from a database application running on proprietary hardware, to a software-only analytical database built on industry-standard blade servers.

Prior to Kognitio, Roger was test and development manager at AB Electronics for five years. During this time his primary responsibility was for the famous BBC Micro Computer and the development and testing of the first mass production of personal computers for IBM.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.

@ThingsExpo Stories
The best way to leverage your Cloud Expo presence as a sponsor and exhibitor is to plan your news announcements around our events. The press covering Cloud Expo and @ThingsExpo will have access to these releases and will amplify your news announcements. More than two dozen Cloud companies either set deals at our shows or have announced their mergers and acquisitions at Cloud Expo. Product announcements during our show provide your company with the most reach through our targeted audiences.
DevOpsSummit New York 2018, colocated with CloudEXPO | DXWorldEXPO New York 2018 will be held November 11-13, 2018, in New York City. Digital Transformation (DX) is a major focus with the introduction of DXWorldEXPO within the program. Successful transformation requires a laser focus on being data-driven and on using all the tools available that enable transformation if they plan to survive over the long term. A total of 88% of Fortune 500 companies from a generation ago are now out of bus...
With 10 simultaneous tracks, keynotes, general sessions and targeted breakout classes, @CloudEXPO and DXWorldEXPO are two of the most important technology events of the year. Since its launch over eight years ago, @CloudEXPO and DXWorldEXPO have presented a rock star faculty as well as showcased hundreds of sponsors and exhibitors! In this blog post, we provide 7 tips on how, as part of our world-class faculty, you can deliver one of the most popular sessions at our events. But before reading...
DXWordEXPO New York 2018, colocated with CloudEXPO New York 2018 will be held November 11-13, 2018, in New York City and will bring together Cloud Computing, FinTech and Blockchain, Digital Transformation, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps, AI, Machine Learning and WebRTC to one location.
DXWorldEXPO LLC announced today that ICOHOLDER named "Media Sponsor" of Miami Blockchain Event by FinTechEXPO. ICOHOLDER give you detailed information and help the community to invest in the trusty projects. Miami Blockchain Event by FinTechEXPO has opened its Call for Papers. The two-day event will present 20 top Blockchain experts. All speaking inquiries which covers the following information can be submitted by email to [email protected] Miami Blockchain Event by FinTechEXPO also offers s...
DXWorldEXPO | CloudEXPO are the world's most influential, independent events where Cloud Computing was coined and where technology buyers and vendors meet to experience and discuss the big picture of Digital Transformation and all of the strategies, tactics, and tools they need to realize their goals. Sponsors of DXWorldEXPO | CloudEXPO benefit from unmatched branding, profile building and lead generation opportunities.
Dion Hinchcliffe is an internationally recognized digital expert, bestselling book author, frequent keynote speaker, analyst, futurist, and transformation expert based in Washington, DC. He is currently Chief Strategy Officer at the industry-leading digital strategy and online community solutions firm, 7Summits.
Digital Transformation and Disruption, Amazon Style - What You Can Learn. Chris Kocher is a co-founder of Grey Heron, a management and strategic marketing consulting firm. He has 25+ years in both strategic and hands-on operating experience helping executives and investors build revenues and shareholder value. He has consulted with over 130 companies on innovating with new business models, product strategies and monetization. Chris has held management positions at HP and Symantec in addition to ...
Cloud-enabled transformation has evolved from cost saving measure to business innovation strategy -- one that combines the cloud with cognitive capabilities to drive market disruption. Learn how you can achieve the insight and agility you need to gain a competitive advantage. Industry-acclaimed CTO and cloud expert, Shankar Kalyana presents. Only the most exceptional IBMers are appointed with the rare distinction of IBM Fellow, the highest technical honor in the company. Shankar has also receive...
Enterprises have taken advantage of IoT to achieve important revenue and cost advantages. What is less apparent is how incumbent enterprises operating at scale have, following success with IoT, built analytic, operations management and software development capabilities - ranging from autonomous vehicles to manageable robotics installations. They have embraced these capabilities as if they were Silicon Valley startups.
Poor data quality and analytics drive down business value. In fact, Gartner estimated that the average financial impact of poor data quality on organizations is $9.7 million per year. But bad data is much more than a cost center. By eroding trust in information, analytics and the business decisions based on these, it is a serious impediment to digital transformation.
The standardization of container runtimes and images has sparked the creation of an almost overwhelming number of new open source projects that build on and otherwise work with these specifications. Of course, there's Kubernetes, which orchestrates and manages collections of containers. It was one of the first and best-known examples of projects that make containers truly useful for production use. However, more recently, the container ecosystem has truly exploded. A service mesh like Istio addr...
Predicting the future has never been more challenging - not because of the lack of data but because of the flood of ungoverned and risk laden information. Microsoft states that 2.5 exabytes of data are created every day. Expectations and reliance on data are being pushed to the limits, as demands around hybrid options continue to grow.
Business professionals no longer wonder if they'll migrate to the cloud; it's now a matter of when. The cloud environment has proved to be a major force in transitioning to an agile business model that enables quick decisions and fast implementation that solidify customer relationships. And when the cloud is combined with the power of cognitive computing, it drives innovation and transformation that achieves astounding competitive advantage.
Digital Transformation: Preparing Cloud & IoT Security for the Age of Artificial Intelligence. As automation and artificial intelligence (AI) power solution development and delivery, many businesses need to build backend cloud capabilities. Well-poised organizations, marketing smart devices with AI and BlockChain capabilities prepare to refine compliance and regulatory capabilities in 2018. Volumes of health, financial, technical and privacy data, along with tightening compliance requirements by...
As IoT continues to increase momentum, so does the associated risk. Secure Device Lifecycle Management (DLM) is ranked as one of the most important technology areas of IoT. Driving this trend is the realization that secure support for IoT devices provides companies the ability to deliver high-quality, reliable, secure offerings faster, create new revenue streams, and reduce support costs, all while building a competitive advantage in their markets. In this session, we will use customer use cases...
The IoT Will Grow: In what might be the most obvious prediction of the decade, the IoT will continue to expand next year, with more and more devices coming online every single day. What isn’t so obvious about this prediction: where that growth will occur. The retail, healthcare, and industrial/supply chain industries will likely see the greatest growth. Forrester Research has predicted the IoT will become “the backbone” of customer value as it continues to grow. It is no surprise that retail is ...
Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life settlement products to hedge funds and investment banks. After, he co-founded a revenue cycle management company where he learned about Bitcoin and eventually Ethereal. Andrew's role at ConsenSys Enterprise is a mul...
DXWorldEXPO LLC announced today that "Miami Blockchain Event by FinTechEXPO" has announced that its Call for Papers is now open. The two-day event will present 20 top Blockchain experts. All speaking inquiries which covers the following information can be submitted by email to [email protected] Financial enterprises in New York City, London, Singapore, and other world financial capitals are embracing a new generation of smart, automated FinTech that eliminates many cumbersome, slow, and expe...
Cloud Expo | DXWorld Expo have announced the conference tracks for Cloud Expo 2018. Cloud Expo will be held June 5-7, 2018, at the Javits Center in New York City, and November 6-8, 2018, at the Santa Clara Convention Center, Santa Clara, CA. Digital Transformation (DX) is a major focus with the introduction of DX Expo within the program. Successful transformation requires a laser focus on being data-driven and on using all the tools available that enable transformation if they plan to survive ov...