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Java IoT: Tutorial

Factory Design Pattern - An Effective Approach

How to create a better and most effective way of designing a Factory Design Pattern

Let us employ our factory design in a traditional manner.

 
package com.ddlab.rnd.patterns;
/**
 * @author Debadatta Mishra(PIKU)
 *
 */
public interface Roles 
{
	public String getRole();
}

The above interface is used as a type as there can be various types of role in the organization. It has a method called "getRole()" that specifies the description of the role of the employee.

Let's design the implementation classes for the suitable roles for CEO, CTO, and CFO in an organization.

 
package com.ddlab.rnd.patterns;
/**
 * @author Debadatta Mishra(PIKU)
 *
 */
public class CEORoles implements Roles 
{
	public String getRole() 
	{
		return "CEO is the supreme head of the company";
	}
}

package com.ddlab.rnd.patterns;
/**
 * @author Debadatta Mishra(PIKU)
 *
 */
public class CFORoles implements Roles
{
	@Override
	public String getRole() 
	{
		return "CFO is the finance head of a company";
	}
}

package com.ddlab.rnd.patterns;
/**
 * @author Debadatta Mishra(PIKU)
 *
 */
public class CTORoles implements Roles
{
	@Override
	public String getRole() 
	{
		return "CTO is the technology decision maker of a company";
	}
}

Now we have to think about the Factory from where we will the Object dynamically. Let us see the code below.

 
package com.ddlab.rnd.patterns;
/**
 * @author Debadatta Mishra(PIKU)
 *
 */
public abstract class EmployeeFactory
{
	public static Roles getRole( String type )
	{
		Roles roles = null;
		if( type.equals("cfo"))
			roles = new CFORoles();
		else if( type.equals("cto"))
			roles = new CTORoles();
		else if( type.equals("ceo"))
			roles = new CEORoles();
		return roles;
	}
}

 

Let us write a simple test harness class to verify the design.

 

 

 
package com.ddlab.rnd.patterns;
/**
 * @author Debadatta Mishra(PIKU)
 *
 */
public class TestTraditionalFactoryDesign 
{
	public static void main(String[] args) 
	{
		String type = "ceo";
		long startTime = System.nanoTime();
		String role = EmployeeFactory.getRole(type).getRole();
		System.out.println("Role ::: "+role);
		long endTime = System.nanoTime();
		System.out.println("Time difference ::: "+(endTime-startTime)+" nano seconds");
	}

}

 

If you run the above program, the following is the output from my system.

For you information, my system has 4 GB RAM and I5 processor.

Role ::: CEO is the supreme head of the company

Time difference ::: 3477574 nano seconds

The above design seems to be correct , but what about performance ? You may say it does not matter because it comes in terms of nano seconds. Of course it does not matter if your application is very small , but it really matters in case of large enterprise applications. if you are a good programmer or developer you can not ignore the performance issue, particularly in case of product development where ther may be similar products in the market.

To address the above issue, let us try another approach of factory design where there may be changes in the factory class.

Let us see the code below.

 
package com.ddlab.rnd.patterns;
/**
 * @author Debadatta Mishra(PIKU)
 *
 */
public enum EmployeeType 
{
	CEO("CEO") 
	{
		@Override
		public Roles getRoles() 
		{
			return new CEORoles();
		}
	},
	
	CTO("CTO")
	{
		@Override
		public Roles getRoles() {
			
			return new CTORoles();
		}
	},
	
	CFO("CFO")
	{
		@Override
		public Roles getRoles() {
			
			return new CFORoles();
		}
	};
	
	private EmployeeType( String type )
	{
		this.type = type;
	}
	
	private String type;
	public abstract Roles getRoles();
	
	public String getType() 
	{
		return type;
	}

	@Override
	public String toString() 
	{
		return "TYPE CODE -> "+type;
	}
}

The test harness class is given below.

 

 
package com.ddlab.rnd.patterns;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;
/**
 * @author Debadatta Mishra(PIKU)
 *
 */
public class TestFactoryDesign 
{
	static Map<String,EmployeeType> typeMap = new HashMap<String,EmployeeType>();
	
	static
	{
		typeMap.put("cto", EmployeeType.CTO);
		typeMap.put("ceo", EmployeeType.CEO);
		typeMap.put("cfo", EmployeeType.CFO);
	}
	
	public static void main(String[] args)
	{
		String empType = "ceo";
		try 
		{
			long startTime = System.nanoTime();
			String whatIstheRole = typeMap.get(empType).getRoles().getRole();
			System.out.println("Role of the Employee :::"+whatIstheRole);
			long endTime = System.nanoTime();
			System.out.println("Time difference ::: "+(endTime-startTime)+" nano seconds");
		}
		catch (NullPointerException e) 
		{
			System.out.println("No such Role is found");
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
	}
}

If you run the above code, you will get the following output.

Role ::: CEO is the supreme head of the company

Time difference ::: 1049108 nano seconds

What about the time. Let use have comparision between the time taken in the traditional approach and the modern approach.

Traditional Approach 3477574 nano seconds
Modern Approach(using enum and Map) 1049108 nano seconds

Can you think about the time difference, it is just about 3 times faster than the traditional approach.

So which is better ? Of course the modern approach of using enum is better. Apart from enum, I have used Map to maintain the list of employee type and its corresponding enum. In this case there is no need to use if clause which may impact our performance as far cyclomatic complexity is concerned. It is always better to use the above approach of 1049108 nano seconds. You can use ConcurrentMap for your multi threaded application.

Conclusion
I hope you will enjoy my article on the factory design pattern. In case of any clarification you can contact me [email protected].

More Stories By Debadatta Mishra

Debadatta Mishra is a senior Java developer with five years of experience in the field of Java and related technologies. He has written many articles on Java-related technologies on the Internet.

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