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Open Source Cloud: Article

Linux Processes: Structure, Hangs and Core Dumps

Efficient and effective resolution practices

If an offending process is consuming system resources at an extraordinary rate and starving production applications, killing the offending process is justified if the process can be killed. However, sometimes a process cannot be killed. When a process has exhausted its timeslice, it is put to sleep() with a given priority. When the priority of the process falls below PZERO, it is in an uninterruptible state and cannot be signaled; however, signals can be queued, and for some operations, this is normal. For others, where the program has hung and never returns, the cause is usually located in the driver or hardware. If the process has a state of D (blocked on I/O), it is uninterruptible and cannot be killed. For example, a process accessing a file over a failed hard NFS mount would be in a state of D while attempting to stat() a file or directory.

Uninterruptible processes usually take place when entering I/O calls, at which point the process has called into the kernel, which is in driver code, during which the process cannot receive signals from user space. In this state, a command cannot be signaled even by a SIGKILL (kill -9). It is important to note that signals are queued if not ignored by a sigmask and executed after the code returns from kernel space. Some signals cannot be masked; see the signal man page for more details.
Here is an excerpt from the signal man page:

Using a signal handler function for a signal is called "catching the signal".
The signals SIGKILL and SIGSTOP cannot be caught or ignored.

A zombie process is another process that a user cannot kill. These processes, however, should not be consuming any CPU cycles or memory resources other than the overhead of having the task structure in the kernel's Virtual Address Space (VAS). The main goal of troubleshooting a zombie process is determining why the parent died without reaping its children. In short, you should focus on why and how the parent dies.
Listed next are process state codes pulled right out of the source code.

* The task state array is a strange "bitmap" of
* reasons to sleep. Thus "running" is zero, and
* you can test for combinations of others with
* simple bit tests.
static const char *task_state_array[] = {
      "R (running)", /* 0 */
      "S (sleeping)", /* 1 */
      "D (disk sleep)", /* 2 */
      "Z (zombie)", /* 4 */
      "T (stopped)", /* 8 */
      "W (paging)" /* 16 */

In Scenario 1, we demonstrate an instance in which a process cannot be killed.

Scenario 1: Troubleshooting a Process That Does Not Respond to kill
A user begins rewinding a tape but realizes that the wrong tape is in the drive. The user tries to kill the job but must wait for the process to finish.


The mt command has made an ioctl call to the SCSI tape driver (st) and must wait for the driver to release the process back to user space so that use signals will be handled.

# mt -f /dev/st0 rewind
# ps -emo state,pid,ppid,pri,size,stime,time,comm,wchan | grep mt
D 9225 8916 24 112 20:46 00:00:00 mt wait_for_completion

[[email protected] root]# kill -9 9225
[[email protected] root]# echo $? # This produces the return code for the previous command. 0 = success
[[email protected] root]# ps -elf | grep 9225
0 D root 9225 8916 0 24 0 - 112 wait_f 20:46 pts/1 00:00:00 mt -f /dev/st0

The mt command has entered a wait channel, and after the code returns from the driver, the signal will be processed.

Let's check the pending signals:

cat ../9225/status
Name: mt
State: D (disk sleep)
Tgid: 9225
Pid: 9225
PPid: 8916
TracerPid: 0
Uid: 0 0 0 0
Gid: 0 0 0 0
FDSize: 256
Groups: 0 1 2 3 4 6 10
VmSize: 2800 kB
VmLck: 0 kB
VmRSS: 640 kB
VmData: 96 kB
VmStk: 16 kB
VmExe: 32 kB
VmLib: 2560 kB
SigPnd: 0000000000000100 <-- SigPnd is a bit mask which indicates the value of the pending signal. Each byte
accounts for 4 bits. In this case, the pending signal has a value of 9, so the first bit on the 3rd byte is set. This
algorithm is detailed in linux/fs/proc/array.c under the render_sigset_t() function. The following table
illustrates this function.

Signal : 1 2 3 4 . 5 6 7 8 . 9 10 11 12 . 13 14 15 16
bit value : 1 2 4 8 . 1 2 4 8 . 1 2 4 8 . 1 2 4 8

kill -3 yields bit mask 0000000000000004
kill -9 yields bit mask 0000000000000100

ShdPnd: 0000000000000100
SigBlk: 0000000000000000
SigIgn: 0000000000000000
SigCgt: 0000000000000000
CapInh: 0000000000000000
CapPrm: 00000000fffffeff
CapEff: 00000000fffffeff

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Most Recent Comments
Linux News Desk 07/13/06 04:59:25 PM EDT

Troubleshooting a Linux process follows the same general methodology as that used with traditional UNIX systems. In both systems, for process hangs, we identify the system resources being used by the process and attempt to identify the cause for the process to stop responding. With application core dumps, we must identify the signal for which the process terminated and proceed with acquiring a stack trace to identify system calls made by the process at the time it died. There exists neither a 'golden' troubleshooting path nor a set of instructions that can be applied for all cases. Some conditions are much easier to solve than others, but with a good understanding of the fundamentals, a solution is not far from reach.

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