|By Patson Luk||
|August 31, 2013 11:00 AM EDT||
In my last blog, we explored WeakHashMap which is based by WeakReference in Java. Now let's look at some best practices for using another powerful class: ThreadLocal from java.lang, which is also implemented using WeakReference.
What is ThreadLocal? A simple example
As its name suggests, a single instance of ThreadLocal can store different values for each thread independently. Therefore, the value stored in a ThreadLocal instance is specific (local) to the current running Thread, any other code logic running on the same thread will see the same value, but not the values set on the same instance by other threads. (There are exceptions, like InhertiableThreadLocal, which inherits parent thread's values by default.)
Let's consider this example:
We have a TransactionManager class that provide static methods to:
- Start a transaction with a generated ID
- Store that ID as a static field and provide a transaction ID getter method to other code logic that needs to know the current transaction ID.
In a single threaded environment, TransactionManager can simply store the ID as a static field and return as is. However, this will certainly not work in a multiple-threaded environment. Imagine multiple threads are using TransactionManager - transaction IDs generated by each thread can overwrite each other as there is only one static instance of transaction ID. One may synchronize and block other transactions to avoid overwrites, but this would totally defeat the purpose of having multiple threads.
In order to solve this problem, ThreadLocal provides a very neat solution:
|1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20||
Different thread that starts transactions via TransactionManager will get its own transaction ID stored in the context. Any logic within the same thread can call getTransactionId() later on to retrieve the value belongs/local to that Thread. So problem's solved!
The Internals of ThreadLocal and How it Works
Let's drill down a little bit into the ThreadLocal's internals. ThreadLocal is implemented by having a Map (a ThreadLocalMap) as field (with WeakReference entry) within each Thread instance. (There are actually 2 maps; the second one is used for InheritabeleThreadLocal, but let's not complicate the picture). The keys of those maps are the corresponding ThreadLocals themselves. Therefore, when a set/get is called on a ThreadLocal, it looks at the current thread, find the map, and look up the value with "this" ThreadLocal instance.
Still confused? I certainly am. Let's look at a real example.
- Code running in Thread 1 calls set() on ThreadLocal instance "A" with value "123″
- Code running in Thread 2 calls set() on ThreadLocal instance "A" with value "234″
- Code running in Thread 1 calls set() on ThreadLocal instance "B" with value "345″
And this is the end result:
Thread 1 (the instance)'s field ThreadLocalMap (m1) has 2 entries:
Thread 2 (the instance)'s field ThreadLocalMap (m2) has 1 entry:
Now if some code logic in Thread 1 calls get() on ThreadLocal instance "A", the ThreadLocal logic will lookup the current Thread, which is instance Thread 1, then access the field ThreadLocalMap of that Thread instance, which is m1, it can then lookup the value by using m1.get(this), with "this" as ThreadLocal and the result is "123″
Now what to watch out for!
Did I hear weak reference for ThreadLocal entries? Does that mean I don't have to clean up? Well, it's not quite that simple.
First of all, the value object put into the ThreadLocal would not purge itself (garbage collected) if there are no more Strong references to it. Instead, the Weak reference is done on the thread instance, which means Java garbage collection would clean up the ThreadLocal map if the thread itself is not strongly referenced elsewhere.
So now the question is: when would the Thread object get garbage collected?
The answer is: it depends, but always assume the thread is long running. 2 common examples:
- Servlets. The threads that handle servlet requests usually stay alive in the container for the lifetime of the server instance. Code logic that uses ThreadLocal might be referenced indirectly by servlets.
- Thread pooling java.util.concurrent.Executors. Java encourages recycling threads!
A typical usage of Executor introduced in Java 1.5, if ThreadLocal maps are not cleaned up properly after a transaction is done, next TransactionProcessingTask might inherit values from another previous unrelated task!
Be careful with initialization of ThreadLocal, below is an implementation of a counter by Thread. Can you tell what is wrong in the below initialzation?
|1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12||
The counter would not get initialized correctly! Though the counter is declared as static, it CANNOT be initialized by having a static initializer, as the initializer only runs once when the first thread references the Counter class. When the second thread comes in, it does not run counter.set(0) on that thread, therefore counter.get() returns null instead of 0! One solution is to sublcass ThreadLocal and override the initialValue() method to assign non-null initial value.
With these in mind, you can probably picture the consequences of not cleaning up after ourselves! An operation that runs on a recycled thread might inherit the values from previous operation on the same thread! Besides, it can also cause memory leaks as the instance stored in ThreadLocal will never get garbage collected if the thread is alive.
As a rule of thumb, always clean up/reset your threadlocal after you have finished your "unit of operation"! Even though the current code might be simple enough to bypass the cleanups, it might be adapted and integrated into servlets/thread pooling later on! After all, cleaning up responsibly is always appreciated both in the realms of programming and real life.
With several hundred implementations of IoT-enabled solutions in the past 12 months alone, this session will focus on experience over the art of the possible. Many can only imagine the most advanced telematics platform ever deployed, supporting millions of customers, producing tens of thousands events or GBs per trip, and hundreds of TBs per month. With the ability to support a billion sensor events per second, over 30PB of warm data for analytics, and hundreds of PBs for an data analytics archive, in his session at @ThingsExpo, Jim Kaskade, Vice President and General Manager, Big Data & Ana...
Mar. 6, 2015 09:00 AM EST Reads: 1,472
CommVault has announced that top industry technology visionaries have joined its leadership team. The addition of leaders from companies such as Oracle, SAP, Microsoft, Cisco, PwC and EMC signals the continuation of CommVault Next, the company's business transformation for sales, go-to-market strategies, pricing and packaging and technology innovation. The company also announced that it had realigned its structure to create business units to more directly match how customers evaluate, deploy, operate, and purchase technology.
Mar. 6, 2015 09:00 AM EST Reads: 803
In the consumer IoT, everything is new, and the IT world of bits and bytes holds sway. But industrial and commercial realms encompass operational technology (OT) that has been around for 25 or 50 years. This grittier, pre-IP, more hands-on world has much to gain from Industrial IoT (IIoT) applications and principles. But adding sensors and wireless connectivity won’t work in environments that demand unwavering reliability and performance. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Ron Sege, CEO of Echelon, will discuss how as enterprise IT embraces other IoT-related technology trends, enterprises with i...
Mar. 6, 2015 09:00 AM EST Reads: 2,486
When it comes to the Internet of Things, hooking up will get you only so far. If you want customers to commit, you need to go beyond simply connecting products. You need to use the devices themselves to transform how you engage with every customer and how you manage the entire product lifecycle. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Sean Lorenz, Technical Product Manager for Xively at LogMeIn, will show how “product relationship management” can help you leverage your connected devices and the data they generate about customer usage and product performance to deliver extremely compelling and reliabl...
Mar. 6, 2015 09:00 AM EST Reads: 1,575
The Internet of Things (IoT) is causing data centers to become radically decentralized and atomized within a new paradigm known as “fog computing.” To support IoT applications, such as connected cars and smart grids, data centers' core functions will be decentralized out to the network's edges and endpoints (aka “fogs”). As this trend takes hold, Big Data analytics platforms will focus on high-volume log analysis (aka “logs”) and rely heavily on cognitive-computing algorithms (aka “cogs”) to make sense of it all.
Mar. 6, 2015 09:00 AM EST Reads: 1,365
One of the biggest impacts of the Internet of Things is and will continue to be on data; specifically data volume, management and usage. Companies are scrambling to adapt to this new and unpredictable data reality with legacy infrastructure that cannot handle the speed and volume of data. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Don DeLoach, CEO and president of Infobright, will discuss how companies need to rethink their data infrastructure to participate in the IoT, including: Data storage: Understanding the kinds of data: structured, unstructured, big/small? Analytics: What kinds and how responsiv...
Mar. 6, 2015 05:00 AM EST Reads: 2,802
The Workspace-as-a-Service (WaaS) market will grow to $6.4B by 2018. In his session at 16th Cloud Expo, Seth Bostock, CEO of IndependenceIT, will begin by walking the audience through the evolution of Workspace as-a-Service, where it is now vs. where it going. To look beyond the desktop we must understand exactly what WaaS is, who the users are, and where it is going in the future. IT departments, ISVs and service providers must look to workflow and automation capabilities to adapt to growing demand and the rapidly changing workspace model.
Mar. 6, 2015 04:00 AM EST Reads: 1,239
Since 2008 and for the first time in history, more than half of humans live in urban areas, urging cities to become “smart.” Today, cities can leverage the wide availability of smartphones combined with new technologies such as Beacons or NFC to connect their urban furniture and environment to create citizen-first services that improve transportation, way-finding and information delivery. In her session at @ThingsExpo, Laetitia Gazel-Anthoine, CEO of Connecthings, will focus on successful use cases.
Mar. 6, 2015 04:00 AM EST Reads: 3,080
Sensor-enabled things are becoming more commonplace, precursors to a larger and more complex framework that most consider the ultimate promise of the IoT: things connecting, interacting, sharing, storing, and over time perhaps learning and predicting based on habits, behaviors, location, preferences, purchases and more. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Tom Wesselman, Director of Communications Ecosystem Architecture at Plantronics, will examine the still nascent IoT as it is coalescing, including what it is today, what it might ultimately be, the role of wearable tech, and technology gaps stil...
Mar. 6, 2015 03:30 AM EST Reads: 2,837
Almost everyone sees the potential of Internet of Things but how can businesses truly unlock that potential. The key will be in the ability to discover business insight in the midst of an ocean of Big Data generated from billions of embedded devices via Systems of Discover. Businesses will also need to ensure that they can sustain that insight by leveraging the cloud for global reach, scale and elasticity.
Mar. 6, 2015 03:15 AM EST Reads: 4,739
The Internet of Things (IoT) promises to evolve the way the world does business; however, understanding how to apply it to your company can be a mystery. Most people struggle with understanding the potential business uses or tend to get caught up in the technology, resulting in solutions that fail to meet even minimum business goals. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jesse Shiah, CEO / President / Co-Founder of AgilePoint Inc., showed what is needed to leverage the IoT to transform your business. He discussed opportunities and challenges ahead for the IoT from a market and technical point of vie...
Mar. 6, 2015 02:45 AM EST Reads: 4,091
IoT is still a vague buzzword for many people. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Mike Kavis, Vice President & Principal Cloud Architect at Cloud Technology Partners, discussed the business value of IoT that goes far beyond the general public's perception that IoT is all about wearables and home consumer services. He also discussed how IoT is perceived by investors and how venture capitalist access this space. Other topics discussed were barriers to success, what is new, what is old, and what the future may hold. Mike Kavis is Vice President & Principal Cloud Architect at Cloud Technology Pa...
Mar. 6, 2015 02:30 AM EST Reads: 4,757
Hadoop as a Service (as offered by handful of niche vendors now) is a cloud computing solution that makes medium and large-scale data processing accessible, easy, fast and inexpensive. In his session at Big Data Expo, Kumar Ramamurthy, Vice President and Chief Technologist, EIM & Big Data, at Virtusa, will discuss how this is achieved by eliminating the operational challenges of running Hadoop, so one can focus on business growth. The fragmented Hadoop distribution world and various PaaS solutions that provide a Hadoop flavor either make choices for customers very flexible in the name of opti...
Mar. 6, 2015 02:30 AM EST Reads: 1,335
The true value of the Internet of Things (IoT) lies not just in the data, but through the services that protect the data, perform the analysis and present findings in a usable way. With many IoT elements rooted in traditional IT components, Big Data and IoT isn’t just a play for enterprise. In fact, the IoT presents SMBs with the prospect of launching entirely new activities and exploring innovative areas. CompTIA research identifies several areas where IoT is expected to have the greatest impact.
Mar. 6, 2015 02:00 AM EST Reads: 3,176
The Internet of Things (IoT) is rapidly in the process of breaking from its heretofore relatively obscure enterprise applications (such as plant floor control and supply chain management) and going mainstream into the consumer space. More and more creative folks are interconnecting everyday products such as household items, mobile devices, appliances and cars, and unleashing new and imaginative scenarios. We are seeing a lot of excitement around applications in home automation, personal fitness, and in-car entertainment and this excitement will bleed into other areas. On the commercial side, m...
Mar. 6, 2015 01:30 AM EST Reads: 3,690
Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs) are increasing at an unprecedented rate. The threat landscape of today is drastically different than just a few years ago. Attacks are much more organized and sophisticated. They are harder to detect and even harder to anticipate. In the foreseeable future it's going to get a whole lot harder. Everything you know today will change. Keeping up with this changing landscape is already a daunting task. Your organization needs to use the latest tools, methods and expertise to guard against those threats. But will that be enough? In the foreseeable future attacks w...
Mar. 6, 2015 01:30 AM EST Reads: 3,816
Disruptive macro trends in technology are impacting and dramatically changing the "art of the possible" relative to supply chain management practices through the innovative use of IoT, cloud, machine learning and Big Data to enable connected ecosystems of engagement. Enterprise informatics can now move beyond point solutions that merely monitor the past and implement integrated enterprise fabrics that enable end-to-end supply chain visibility to improve customer service delivery and optimize supplier management. Learn about enterprise architecture strategies for designing connected systems tha...
Mar. 6, 2015 12:30 AM EST Reads: 3,737
Dale Kim is the Director of Industry Solutions at MapR. His background includes a variety of technical and management roles at information technology companies. While his experience includes work with relational databases, much of his career pertains to non-relational data in the areas of search, content management, and NoSQL, and includes senior roles in technical marketing, sales engineering, and support engineering. Dale holds an MBA from Santa Clara University, and a BA in Computer Science from the University of California, Berkeley.
Mar. 6, 2015 12:15 AM EST Reads: 3,917
Wearable devices have come of age. The primary applications of wearables so far have been "the Quantified Self" or the tracking of one's fitness and health status. We propose the evolution of wearables into social and emotional communication devices. Our BE(tm) sensor uses light to visualize the skin conductance response. Our sensors are very inexpensive and can be massively distributed to audiences or groups of any size, in order to gauge reactions to performances, video, or any kind of presentation. In her session at @ThingsExpo, Jocelyn Scheirer, CEO & Founder of Bionolux, will discuss ho...
Mar. 6, 2015 12:00 AM EST Reads: 3,171
The cloud is now a fact of life but generating recurring revenues that are driven by solutions and services on a consumption model have been hard to implement, until now. In their session at 16th Cloud Expo, Ermanno Bonifazi, CEO & Founder of Solgenia, and Ian Khan, Global Strategic Positioning & Brand Manager at Solgenia, will discuss how a top European telco has leveraged the innovative recurring revenue generating capability of the consumption cloud to enable a unique cloud monetization model to drive results.
Mar. 5, 2015 08:00 PM EST Reads: 1,969