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Open source programmers stink at error handling

Commercial programmers stink at it too, but that's not the point. We should be better.

(LinuxWorld) -- Thanks to my very talented readers I've been able to start almost every recent column with a reader's PHP tip. I'm tempted to make it a regular feature, but with my luck the tips would stop rolling in the moment I made it official. So I want you to be aware that this week's tip is not part of any regular practice. It is purely coincidental that PHP tips appear in column after column. Now that I've jinx-proofed the column, I'll share the tip.

Reader Michael Anderson wrote in with an alternative to using arrays to pass database information to PHP functions.  As you may recall from the column Even more stupid PHP tricks, you can retrieve the results of a query into an array and pass that array to a function this way:

$result = mysql_query("select name, address from customer where cid=1");

$CUST = mysql_fetch_array($result); do_something($CUST);

function do_something($CUST) {    echo $CUST["name"];    echo $CUST["address"]; } ?>

Michael pointed out that you can also retrieve the data as an object and reference the fields as the object's properties. Here's the above example rewritten to use objects:

$result = mysql_query("select name, address from customer where cid=1");

$CUST = mysql_fetch_object($result); do_something($CUST);

function do_something($CUST) {    echo $CUST->name;    echo $CUST->address; } ?>

I can't help but agree with Michael that this is a preferable way to handle the data, but only because it feels more natural to me to point to an object property than to reference an element of an array using the string name or address. It's purely a personal preference, probably stemming from habits I learned using C++.

OCD programmers unite

Nothing could be a better segue into the topic I had planned for this week. I'm thinking about starting a group called OLUG, the Obsessive Linux User Group. Although I know enough about psychology to know I don't meet the qualifications of a person with full-fledged OCD (Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder), I confess that I went back and rewrote my PHP code to use objects instead of arrays even there was no technical justification for doing so.

Certain things bring out the OCD in me. Warning messages, for example. It doesn't matter if my programs seem to work perfectly. If a compiler issues warnings when I compile my code, I feel compelled to fix the code to get rid of the warnings even if I know the code works fine. Likewise, if my program generates warnings or error messages at run time, I feel driven to look for the reasons and get rid of them.

Now I don't want you to get the wrong impression. My PHP and C++ code stand as testimony to the fact that my programming practices don't even come within light years of perfection. But just because I do not live up to the standards I am about to demand isn't going to stop me from demanding them. It's my right as a columnist. Those who can, do. Those who can't, write columns.

I'll be blunt. Open source programmers need to stop being so darned lazy about error handling. That obviously doesn't include all open source programmers. You know who you are.

If you want a demonstration of what I mean, start your favorite GUI-based open source applications from the command line of an X terminal instead of a menu or icon. In most cases this will cause the errors and warnings that the application generates to appear in the terminal window where you started it. (There are exceptions, depending on the application or the script that launches the application.)

Many of the applications I use on a daily basis generate anywhere from a few warnings or error messages to a few hundred. And I'm not just talking about the debug messages that programmers use to track what a program is doing. I mean warning messages about missing files, missing objects, null pointers, and worse.

These messages raise several questions. Doesn't anyone who works on these programs check for such things? Why do they go unfixed for so long? Are these problems something that should be of concern to users? Worse, what if these messages appear because of a problem with my installation or configuration, and not because the program hasn't been fully debugged? But even if it is my installation that is broken, shouldn't the application report the errors? Why do I have to start the application from a terminal window to see the messages?

Getting a handle on errors

At first I wondered if this was a problem that you would be more likely to find when developers use one graphical toolkit rather than another. But I see both good and bad error handling no matter which tools people use. For example, the GNOME/Gtk word processor AbiWord has been flawless lately. Not a single warning or error message appears in the console. It's possible that AbiWord simply isn't directing output to the console, but I'm guessing that it's simply a well-tested and well-behaved application.

On the other hand, GNOME itself has been a nightmare for me lately. At one point I got so frustrated that I deleted all the configuration files for all of GNOME and GTK applications in my home directory in disgust, determined never to use them again. When I regained my composure and restarted GNOME with the intent of finding the cause of the problems, the problems had already disappeared. Obviously one or more of my configuration files had been at fault. Which one, I may never know, because GNOME or some portion of it lacked the proper error handling that should have told me.

In this case I was lucky that the problems were so bad I lost my temper and deleted the configuration files. In most cases, the applications appear to function normally. Aside from being ignorant of any messages unless you start the application from a terminal, there's no way of knowing why the warnings exist, or if they are cause for concern. The warnings could be harmless, or they could mean the application will eventually crash, corrupt data, or worse.


Just so you know I'm not making this up, here are some samples of the console messages that appeared after just a couple of minutes of toying with various programs. By the way, did you know you can actually configure the Linux kernel from the KDE control panel? Bravo to whoever added this feature. Nevertheless, when I activate that portion of the control panel, I get the message:

QToolBar::QToolBar main window cannot be 0.

Is there supposed to be a toolbar that isn't displayed as a result? I may never know.

The e-mail client sylpheed generates this informative message after about a minute of use:

Sylpheed-CRITICAL **: file main.c: line 346 (get_queued_message_num): assertion `queue != NULL' failed.

The Ximian Evolution program generates tons of warnings, but most are repetitions. They begin with the following:

evolution-shell-WARNING **: Cannot activate Evolution component -- OAFIID:GNOME_Evolution_Calendar_ShellComponent
evolution-shell-WARNING **: e_folder_type_registry_get_icon_for_type() -- Unknown type `calendar'
evolution-shell-WARNING **: e_folder_type_registry_get_icon_for_type() -- Unknown type `tasks'

The KDE Aethera client generates even more warning messages than Evolution, but many of them are simply debug messages about what the program is doing. By the way, I finally figured out why I couldn't login to my IMAP server with Aethera. The Aethera client couldn't deal with the asterisks in my password. I could log in after I changed my password, but I still can't see my mail. The program simply leaves the folder empty and says there's nothing to sync. Here are just a few of the countless warnings I get from Aethera, including the sync message.

Warning: ClientVFS::_fact_ref could not create object vfolderattribute:/Magellan/Mail/default.fattr
Reason(s): -- object does not exist on server
Warning: VFolder *_new() was called on an already registered path
clientvfs: warning: could not create folder [spath:imap_00141, type:imap]
RemoteMailFolder::sync() : Nothing to sync!

The spreadsheet Kspread reports these errors all the time, even though what I'm doing has nothing to do with dates or times:

QTime::setHMS Invalid time -1:-1:-1.000
QDate::setYMD: Invalid date -001/-1/-1

The e-mail client Balsa popped up these messages just moments after using it:

changing server settings for '' ((nil))
** WARNING **: Cannot find expected file "gnome-multipart-mixed.png" (spliced with "pixmaps") with no extra prefixes

The Gnumeric spreadsheet only reported that it couldn't find the help file, as shown below:

Bonobo-WARNING **: Could not open help topics file NULL for app gnumeric

Many of these problems could easily have been handled more intelligently. For example, Gnumeric could have asked for the correct path to the help file, perhaps adding an option so a user can decide not to install the help files and disable the message. Unless GTK and Bonobo are a lot more complicated than they should be, it should be easy to create a generic component for handling things like this and then use the component to handle all optional help files as a rule.

The only conclusion I can draw is that, like most commercial software developers, many open source programmers are just plain lazy about proper error handling. But we're supposed to be better than that, and it's time we started to live up to the reputation. I realize that most of these programs are works in progress. But good error handling is not something that should be left for last. It should be part of the development process. Although I may not practice it myself, I'm not the least bit ashamed to preach it.

More Stories By Nicholas Petreley

Nicholas Petreley is a computer consultant and author in Asheville, NC.

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